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This calibrated range of dates is represented in the last column, given with a 2-sigma error rating, which means at 95% confidence.With the exception of the first text from Wadi-ed-Daliyeh, the texts in the table below are only those from the caves around Qumran.
Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. Levy is Professor of Anthropology and Judaic Studies at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). He has been involved with and served as a principal investigator of several major projects in the Near East including the Jabal Hamrat Fidan project in southern Jordan. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research (one of the American Schools of Oriental Research) and the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology of the Hebrew Union College, Jerusalem, he joined the UCSD faculty in 1992 where he has served as Chair of the Department of Anthropology and Director of the Judaic Studies Program.The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.(1), asserting that he had discovered King Solomon's mines in the Faynan district (the northern part of biblical Edom), ≈50 km south of the Dead Sea in what is now southern Jordan.